What is Virtual Reality

Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that utilises technology to create a digital world, enabling users to interact with and explore artificial, three-dimensional environments.

Developed decades ago, VR has now become widely accessible due to advances in technology, making it smaller, more powerful, and affordable for mainstream use.

Primarily, virtual reality experiences are created using pose tracking and 3D near-eye displays, which provide users with an immersive sense of the virtual world. The applications of VR span across various sectors, including entertainment, education, and business, and its capabilities continue to expand as technology progresses.

In educational settings, VR has shown potential as a tool for enhancing learning experiences and assisting in the development of new skills. In business, virtual reality technology can improve remote collaboration and support endeavours such as virtual meetings.

The constant advancements in virtual reality make it an exciting field to explore, and it holds significant promise for shaping the future of how people work, learn, and interact with digital environments.

Understanding Virtual Reality


Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that creates an immersive experience by simulating a three-dimensional environment with which users can interact. It uses computer-generated visuals and sensory inputs such as sound, touch, or motion tracking to transport users into a digital world, where they can experience a sense of immersion and agency.

Various types of extended reality exist, with VR being one type that focuses on complete immersion in a simulated environment. This is distinct from other forms like augmented reality, which overlays digital elements onto the real world.


The concept of VR has its roots in both science fiction and the development of computer technology. Early experiments with VR date back to the 1960s, but it wasn’t until the 1980s and 1990s that VR began to enter the public imagination with the rise of advanced computer graphics and gaming technology.

Since then, significant advancements have been made in the field, leading to more realistic, high-fidelity experiences and a broadening of applications.

In recent years, VR technology has evolved considerably, and it is now being used in various sectors, including education, healthcare, entertainment, and training. The increased use of VR technology in these fields has made it a powerful tool for learning, remote communication, and training simulations.

Types of Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality (VR) is a technology that allows users to experience and interact with simulated environments. There are several types of VR, offering various levels of immersion and interactivity. This section explores three main types: Immersive VR, Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR).

Immersive VR

Immersive VR creates a completely artificial environment in which users can interact with virtual objects and surroundings. This type of VR utilises headsets, gloves, and other devices to provide input and feedback, giving users the feeling that they have been transported into a new world. Examples of popular Immersive VR headsets include the Oculus Quest and Valve Index.

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality (AR) adds digital elements to the user’s real-world environment, overlaying virtual objects onto the physical realm. AR devices, such as smartphones or smart glasses, use cameras and sensors to place virtual elements within the user’s field of view.

A popular example of AR is the game Pokemon Go, which merges digital creatures with the user’s real surroundings.

Mixed Reality

Mixed Reality (MR) is a combination of VR and AR, blending the real and virtual worlds to create a new environment that allows both physical and digital objects to coexist and interact in real-time. MR devices, such as the Microsoft HoloLens, use advanced sensors to place virtual elements within the user’s real-world environment and understand the spatial characteristics.

This allows users to manipulate virtual objects as if they were interacting with real items.

These three types of Virtual Reality technologies offer unique ways for users to experience and engage with virtual and real environments, providing exciting opportunities for entertainment, education, and collaboration.

VR Hardware and Devices

Virtual reality (VR) is a technology designed to immerse users in a simulated environment, creating a digital experience that feels strikingly real.

The key components of VR systems include head-mounted displays (HMDs), motion trackers, gloves, and controllers.

These devices work in harmony to deliver a seamless and immersive experience.

Head-Mounted Displays

Head-mounted displays are worn on the user’s head, with a screen positioned in front of their eyes. This screen displays the virtual environment and often has a high refresh rate and low latency to avoid motion sickness.

Common HMDs include devices such as the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, and PlayStation VR. These displays usually have built-in sensors to track the user’s head movements, ensuring that the virtual environment responds accurately and swiftly to their actions.

Motion Trackers

Motion trackers are crucial for tracking the user’s movements and translating them into the virtual environment.

These devices use various technologies, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and infrared sensors, to detect changes in position and orientation.

Motion trackers are often integrated into HMDs, gloves, and controllers to enable precise and responsive interactions within the VR world.

Gloves and Controllers

VR gloves and controllers play a fundamental role in allowing users to interact with the virtual environment. Gloves are equipped with sensors that allow them to detect hand and finger movements, providing a tangible sense of touch and enabling more realistic and intuitive interactions.

Examples of VR gloves include Manus VR and HaptX.

Controllers, on the other hand, are hand-held devices designed for user input in VR systems. They usually feature buttons, triggers, and motion sensors to enable various forms of control and navigation.

Popular VR controllers include the Oculus Touch, HTC Vive Controllers, and PlayStation Move.

Applications of Virtual Reality

Virtual reality (VR) is an immersive technology that has transformed various industries by offering simulated experiences. Some key applications of VR can be found in gaming, training and education, healthcare, and architecture and design.


One of the most popular applications of virtual reality is in the gaming industry. VR gaming involves wearing a headset with sensors and controllers, allowing users to interact with the virtual world.

This technology provides a realistic and immersive gaming experience that can range from fantasy adventures to action-packed simulations. Some popular VR games include Beat Saber, Half-Life: Alyx, and Superhot VR, among others.

Training and Education

VR offers numerous opportunities for training and education by simulating real-world scenarios. This technology can immerse learners in environments that would be difficult, expensive, or dangerous to experience in person.

For example, pilots can train using VR to simulate flying conditions without leaving the ground, and medical students can practice surgeries in a controlled and risk-free virtual environment.

This immersive learning approach can lead to better retention and understanding of complex subjects.


In healthcare, virtual reality is aiding medical professionals and patients alike. Along with offering medical training, VR can be used for patient therapy and rehabilitation.

This includes pain management, exposure therapy for phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and physical therapy for patients recovering from injuries.

Architecture and Design

The adoption of VR in architecture and design has led to significant improvements in project planning and visualisation. Virtual reality enables architects, interior designers, and clients to explore building designs before construction begins.

This allows them to make informed decisions and changes to the design, ultimately saving time and resources. Clients can also better understand and visualise their future homes or office spaces using virtual walkthroughs.

Challenges and Future of Virtual Reality

Technical Limitations

One of the main challenges facing virtual reality technology is overcoming its technical limitations. Currently, devices need to become smaller, lighter, wireless, and offer higher resolution displays to provide a more immersive experience.

Companies are working towards developing advancements such as hand-tracking without the use of controllers, and better-integrated eye-tracking features.

As the technology advances, we expect to see improvements in hardware and software, such as mobile VR/AR experiences without downloading apps, and more immersive sporting events and entertainment experiences.

Ethical Concerns

Alongside the technical limitations of virtual reality, there are ethical concerns to address. As societies increasingly rely on virtual environments, it’s crucial to ensure that these spaces foster cooperation and maintain company culture.

Various VR solutions are emerging to meet these challenges and will continue to be developed in the future.

Furthermore, virtual reality has the potential to impact mental health and well-being. Striking a balance between virtual and real-world interactions is essential in mitigating potential negative effects on individuals who frequently use VR technology.

Picture of Phil


I’m the resident head of comms and partnerships here at Draw & Code. I work on strategy, sales, marketing and other vital areas at a studio that was founded on a dream and has spent the intervening decade trying to make that dream come true. I believe that immersive and interactive technologies are impacting on our lives and being in the epicentre of this industry makes every day a thrill.

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